There are differing views on the scope of the Article 6.4 climate promotion and sustainable development mechanism. While some countries, including Brazil, want to continue the project-based approach under the CDM, others favour a broader mechanism, which also includes sectoral programmes and approaches.  Cooperative mechanisms must also ensure the environmental integrity of the cooperation and transfer process. This means that mechanisms should not be used to circumvent climate protection ambitions in the countries concerned. For example, the transfer of emissions reductions from one country to another should not lead to countries` respective climate change efforts being inferior to what they would be without the cooperation mechanism. In Paris, the parties agreed on a general framework and objectives for cooperation mechanisms. It is not clear how these objectives will be achieved and how the mechanisms will be implemented. These two aspects are addressed in the current climate change negotiations, which are characterized by divergent political positions and many outstanding issues concerning technical issues, structure and design.  While the other two approaches focus on cooperation in the implementation of climate change measures, the range of cooperation opportunities under Article 6.8 is much wider. In addition to measures to combat climate change and adaptation to climate change, they also cover technology transfer and capacity-building measures. How these approaches need to work has yet to be clarified – the details will come to fruition in the coming years when developing a framework for non-market-based approaches. The international cooperation under Article 6 aims to strengthen ambitions. As far as the fight against climate change is concerned, it is generally a cooperation that enables participating countries to achieve more ambitious emission reduction targets.
What is remarkable here is that the idea of increased ambition under the Paris Agreement is not limited to mitigating climate change. It also contains measures and targets for adaptation to climate change. However, considerable progress has been made in Madrid on technical issues. It is also positive to note that, on the last day of the conference, a group of countries led by Costa Rica and Switzerland launched the “San José Declaration”, which established quality standards for the integrity of transactions in accordance with Article 6 and quickly received support from 31 countries. It remains to be seen whether the principles agreed in the declaration can mark negotiations on the Article 6 regulatory framework and help overcome the political differences that prevail in abundance. The ongoing negotiations will be critical to the future role of market mechanisms and will also largely determine how the parties can cooperate in the implementation of their national contributions (CNN).